My daughter is 12 years old, and she has already been groped. It happened at a local water park last summer in the wave pool, the kind of swimming pool where mechanically generated waves simulate the swell of the ocean. As one wave lifted her up, she felt the hand of a teenage boy grabbing her bikinied butt. How strange, she thought. It must have been a mistake; maybe the wave had carried him into her. Yet the same thing happened to her 11-year-old friend who was swimming nearby. Then they heard two more girls remarking loudly that the boy had touched them, too. Apparently, this young man was groping every female buttock in the pool like he was testing for ripe fruit at the farmers' market. Soon, the two lifeguards on duty were frantically blowing their whistles. The waves stopped and the red-handed boy, standing by the lifeguard station with his father, was told to leave the water park immediately.
While the news that my young daughter had been groped horrified me, I couldn't have imagined a better outcome. She was with a friend and her friend's mother, able to share and process the experience and even laughed about it a little. More important, the teenage offender was caught, confronted, and suffered the consequences. He was publically shamed for his stupid and intrusive acts, as he deserved to be. And yet, my girl had been groped. She had been initiated into the world of women everywhere who are plagued by men behaving badly. Or in the words of a recent "Saturday Night Live" skit, "Welcome to Hell."
The recent spate of news stories about women (and some men) being sexually harassed in the entertainment industry and in politics may be painful to witness, but it's also liberating. The #metoo movement has broken the code of silence and unleashed a formidable backlash against many men who have unfairly wielded their power. Women and men are talking; mothers and fathers are talking. And many of us are wondering: How did we get here, and how can we stem the tide of sexual misconduct for the generations to come? How can we do things a little more mindfully so that we can raise girls who are empowered and expressive, and boys who are enlightened and empathetic?
A True Yes and a True NoAlicia Muñoz, a psychotherapist and couples' counselor based in Falls Church, Virginia, sees one solution in the growing trend toward raising sex-positive kids. "Sex positive" is a relatively new buzz-phrase that's gaining traction in the therapy world and beyond. "It's about helping your children grow up with a sense of sexuality as a natural, normal, healthy, pleasurable part of being alive, of being a human being," says Muñoz. "That's easier said than done, especially in a culture that is so weighted toward sex negativity and gender biases and power differentials that are unfair. It's a tall order, but an important thing."
One essential message of sex positivity is that any sexual activity, and any touching of body parts, should be consensual. "Taking the shame out of sexuality is part of what provides a foundation for the awareness of consent," says Muñoz. "It's being able to grow up in an environment where you're not ashamed of your own sexuality, or of sexuality in general. That's part of what empowers you to have a voice, and having a voice means you're connected to your right to give a true yes or a true no in different situations, including sexual ones. And on the other side of it, you're primed to respect another's true yes or true no when you view sex as a positive, integral, normal part of being human."
Raising kids to be sex positive is a lifestyle that begins at the onset of parenthood. Many parents worry about when to have "the talk" with their children, but, in a sense, we're already talking about sex to our kids before they have language. "From the moment they're born, babies and kids are receiving data related to sex and sexuality and gender—through their senses, touch, longings, hunger, their relationship to their body, and their parents' or caregiver's relationships to their bodies," says Muñoz. Yet the time will come when children want to put sex into words they can understand. And the sex-positive way for parents is to start talking about sex as soon as a child starts asking about it. "When a child asks a question, even if that child is just two and a half or three, you answer it in simple, true language," says Muñoz. "You call a vulva a vulva, a penis a penis. You don't call it a wee-wee or a pee-pee or another nickname. You show that, even in the naming of body parts, there's no need to hide it."
While the goal is to remove any negativity and evasiveness from sexuality, it's important not to take the message too far and give your child more than he or she is ready to handle. Talk about sex should be age-appropriate, keeping in mind what young brains need. "Little kids need short-sentence explanations rather than long lectures," says Muñoz. "For a four-year-old who asks where babies come from, a short answer might be that babies are created by a man and a woman giving each other a special kind of hug." Yet with sex positivity, the aim is to always expand the lens of sexuality and give a sense of inclusiveness beyond limited cultural norms or biases. So, parents might want to add that some babies are created by a man's seed that's put with the help of a doctor into a woman, and then that baby might be raised by two men, or it might be raised by two women. Then no matter which path the child takes later in terms of sexual preference or gender identity, the stage is set for a sense of normalcy and acceptance from the outset.
Following Your Child's LeadWith so much buzz about sexual harassment and assault in the news and popular culture, parents may wonder how to talk about such heavy issues with their children—and how to protect them from the bullying and power imbalances that start as early as elementary school. "Most kids don't pay attention to what happens in the news, so in terms of discussing something disturbing with your child, it's best to wait until the child raises up the issue themselves," says Stanley Goldstein, PhD, a child clinical psychologist based in Middletown and the author of several books including Troubled Children/Troubled Parents: The Way Out 2nd edition (Wyston Books, 2011). The idea is to follow the child's lead; equally important is to speak with them rather than to them, even when you're laying down guidelines designed to keep them safe—such as explaining to your teenage daughter why you don't want her to walk alone at night.
"It's crucially important not to say to a child or teenager, 'Do this because I say so.' If you do that, then you repress the capacity for abstract thinking. Instead, say, 'Do it because...' and express your concerns. Explain that the world is generally a safe place, but you have to be cautious. If you feel that they're not ready to do certain things, tell them no and tell them why." While many parents believe that the major influence for teenagers is their peer group, Goldstein posits that the major influence for healthy teenagers remains the parents. "They might say, 'Joey does this, so why can't I do it?' They might give you a hard time, but they'll appreciate it. There's nothing worse for a child than feeling like their parent doesn't care."
In the same spirit, parents are modeling behaviors to their children all the time, without speaking. Empathy is not something that you can inculcate into a child, but they'll develop the capacity for it through osmosis, says Goldstein. "If the child sees a healthy interaction between the parents, sees them supporting each other and talking about their feelings, they'll grow up with these kinds of capacities. Empathy is something that really derives from the family experience." Yet some things do need to be put into words, and in a world where sexual misconduct is rampant, therapists tend to agree about one thing to tell your kids unequivocally: "The hard and fast rule is that you don't have the right to put your hands on someone else, period. And no one should put their hands on you. Period."
The Power of Speaking OutParents are not the only influencers; cultural messaging is very powerful as well. Terrence Real, a psychotherapist who wrote I Don't Want to Talk About It: Overcoming the Secret Legacy of Male Depression (Scribner, 1998) and other books, says that boys lose their hearts when they're five or six, and girls lose their voices when they're 11 or 12. "Five or six is when the socialization process starts to really impact boys as they get shamed for doing things they were allowed to do when they were younger," says Muñoz. "They might be called weak or girly. So, when you have a boy, how do you keep him connected to his heart yet still have him belong in his circle of peers? How do you keep your girls raising their hands in class rather than becoming wallflowers? How do you keep them speaking up when the society says that if you speak up you're a bitch, or you're not as attractive?"
Expressiveness in girls is crucial to encourage for two main purposes: their ability to share difficult experiences, and their empowerment in speaking out and defending themselves. "Letting your child lead the conversation, or lead the play when they are younger, creates a space where your child trusts you to share things such as, 'Oh, one of the boys grabs my behind at school' or 'I saw a video with naked people on the internet.'" Parents can practice not reacting in fear or letting their anxiety show, but opening a space to calmly help and guide them. In turn, some self-defense teachers have girls practice yelling on the top of their lungs and using their voice, so if they are assaulted or groped in the subway or on the street, they can call attention to the perpetrator and get help if help is needed.
To raise sex-positive kids requires some work from the parents, and not all of it is easy. If a parent has any sexual trauma or abuse in their own past, it's essential for them to be willing to face and work through it, not only for their own sake but for their children's sake. Otherwise, says Muñoz, "In your well-intentioned desire to protect your children, you're going to be communicating a lot of sex-negative messages to them." Another challenge for parents is resisting the impulse to impose their power as adults over their children in everyday interactions. "What they learn there is, 'Oh, I have to obey somebody more powerful than me even if it doesn't feel good,'" says Muñoz. "Not telling your child they have to obey isn't the same thing as having the inmates run the asylum. Instead it's telling them, 'I'm with you. We work as a team.'"